Soils develop at the earth's surface via multiple processes that act through time.
Precluding burial or disturbance, soil genetic horizons form progressively and reflect the balance among formation processes, surface age, and original substrate composition.
After determining one or more absolute ages for a soil/landform complex, we can calculate quantitative soil formation, and or landform-development rates.
Multiple dates for several complexes allow rate calculations for soil/landform-chronosequence development and soil-chronofunction calibration.
Absolute dating refers to analysis of radioactive components in a mineral (within a rock), which provides the age at which the mineral formed (solidified) in the rock.
Such techniques are used mainly for igneous rocks that cool directly from magma, but some chemically precipitated minerals and cements in sedimentary rocks can be dated in this manner.
So, let's imagine for a second that you have a 3-layered cake. So, by definition, the oldest layer of cake would be chocolate, as it was put there first. Now all of a sudden the big tower of cookies running through the middle of your cake is the youngest feature, as the other three layers in order for it to be there.
Your 3 layers will consist of a chocolate cake, a vanilla cake, and a cheesecake, because you're crazy and your cake doesn't have to conform to standards. On your plate, you put the chocolate cake on bottom, or the first layer. Then vanilla and cheesecake are the second and third oldest, respectively. Now that I've gotten you all hungry for cake and cookies let's talk about rocks instead.
When we evaluate soil data or soil indices mathematically, the resulting equation creates a chronofunction.It is a fundamental principle that is the backbone of stratigraphy.Stratigraphic sequences, such as those that comprise reservoirs, exhibit systematic and somewhat predictable vertical stacking patterns that are explained by Walther's Law.Surfaces called unconformites represent gaps in the geologic record that formed wherever layers were not deposited for a period time or else layers were eroded before the next layer could be unconformity between two sets of strata that are not parallel to one another.Forms when new horizontal layers cover up older layers folded by mountain-building processes and eroded down to nearly horizontal levels.In addition to providing a means for absolute dating of sedimentary rocks, high-resolution biostratigraphy can aid researchers in (1) interpreting stratigraphic intervals and their ages on seismic reflection profiles, (2) correlating between-well stratigraphic and temporal relationships, (3) determining sedimentation rates, and (4) determining depositional environments and changes in environments over time.