Purchasing power parities allow for accurate measures of economic data across countries, because they relate the prices of the same goods and services in different nations.  * In keeping with Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility, all graphs in this research show the full range of available data, and all facts are cited based upon availability and relevance, not to slant results by singling out specific years that are different from others. Capital and business income provided 28%, and employer-paid benefits made up the remaining 11%.
* In 2013, cash wages and salaries accounted for 61% of market income for U. This varied by income group on average as follows: * Gross domestic product (GDP) measures national economic output, or the value of all goods and services that a country produces in a year.
Many of these benefits are “legally required” by government, such as Social Security and Medicare. * In the 2000s, three employees brought a class action lawsuit against IBM for withholding overtime pay from workers that IBM considered to be exempt from the regulations.
The company settled the lawsuit for million.  * In 2015, the U. Department of Labor, then under the leadership of Barack Obama, issued a regulation to make overtime pay mandatory for workers earning less than ,476/year.
Using 2,000 data points on national debt and economic growth in 20 advanced economies (such as the United States, France, and Japan) from 1800–2009, the authors found that countries with national debts above 90% of GDP averaged 34% less real annual economic growth than when their debts were below 90% of GDP. * In 2013, the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, published a working paper about the economic consequences of government debt.
Using data on national debt and economic growth in 20 advanced economies from 1946–2009, the authors found that countries with national debts over 90% of GDP averaged: * The authors of the above-cited papers have engaged in a heated dispute about the results of their respective papers and the effects of government debt on economic growth.
Nevertheless, it can confidently be concluded that, collectively, those factors account for a major portion and, possibly, almost all of the raw gender wage gap. * In 2013, 54% of Mexico and Central American immigrants aged 25–64 did not have a high school diploma or GED, as compared to 7% of people born in the U. There is something fundamentally misleading about measuring gains to family earnings provided by increases in women’s employment that do not account for the reduction in living standards resulting from declines in time devoted to unpaid work. Greater labor force participation is associated with higher tax revenues because the number of employed people, and therefore the number of people paying income and payroll taxes, tends to rise.
It is also associated with lower spending on means-tested programs (which provide cash payments or other forms of assistance to people with relatively low income or few assets), such as Medicaid, and on refundable tax credits.
Once we control for outside factors the wage gap between men and women shrinks considerably.
Countries with low GDP per capita and slow growth in GDP per capita are less able to satisfy basic needs for food, shelter, clothing, education, and health.   * In 2006, the World Bank analyzed the capital resources of 118 nations and found that the wealth of most nations is mainly comprised of intangible capital.
In about 85% of these countries, intangible capital accounted for more than half of their wealth. Per the study: Today, women make up about half our workforce.
The results show that including fringe benefits makes a considerable difference in the analysis of earnings differentials.
In fact, we conclude that any measure of earnings that excludes fringe benefits may produce misleading results as to the existence, magnitude, consequence, and source of market discrimination.
He did this by comparing how many Big Macs they could buy with their income from an hour of work. The distribution of pretax income from 1979–2013 varied as follows: * According to Piketty and Saez, from 1979 to 2013, the pre-tax income share of the top 10% grew by 12 percentage points.