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Genghis created a settlement of Chinese craftsmen and farmers at Kem-kemchik after the first phase of the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty.The Great Khans favored gyrfalcons, furs, women and Kyrgyz horses for tribute. The descendants of Orda Khan, the eldest son of Jochi, directly ruled the area.In 1207 his eldest son Jochi subjugated the Siberian forest people, the Uriankhai, the Oirats, Barga, Khakas, Buryats, Tuvans, Khori-Tumed, and Kyrgyz. Genghis Khan gave the Telengit and Tolos along the Irtysh River to an old companion, Qorchi.While the Barga, Tumed, Buriats, Khori, Keshmiti, and Bashkirs were organized in separate thousands, the Telengit, Tolos, Oirats and Yenisei Kirghiz were numbered as tumens.Between the 7th and 3rd centuries BCE, the Indo-Iranian Scythians flourished in the Altai region (Pazyryk culture).They were a major influence on all later steppe empires.

Countless kurgans (tumuli), furnaces, and other archaeological artifacts bear witness to a dense population.The government also used it as a place of exile, sending Avvakum, Dostoevsky, and the Decemberists, among others, to work camps in the region.During the 19th century, the Trans-Siberian Railway was constructed, supporting industrialization.Some of the earliest artifacts found in Central Asia derive from Siberia.The Yeniseians were followed by the Uralic Samoyede, who came from the northern Ural region.This was also aided by the discovery and exploitation of vast reserves of Siberian mineral resources.

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