The northern border areas near Iran and Turkey are mountainous and experience cold, harsh winters, while the west is mostly desert.
The differences in climate have influenced the economies of the various areas and ethnic groups, especially since a large part of the economy used to be agriculturally based. The estimated Iraqi population for 2000 is 22,675,617 people.
Arabic, a Semitic language, was introduced by the Arab conquerors and has three different forms: classical, modern standard, and spoken.
Classical Arabic, best known by scholars, is the written language of the Qur'an.
Archaeological museums were built in several cities, which held exhibitions and educational programs especially for children, so that they were made aware of the historical importance of their culture and nation.
In order to promote this center of attention on history, several ancient sites from the city of Babylon were reconstructed, such as the Ziggurat of Aqarquf, the ruins of Babylon, the temple of Ishtar, the southern fortress of Nebuchadnezzar, and the Greek amphitheater.
The second-largest cultural group is the Kurds, who are in the highlands and mountain valleys of the north in a politically autonomous settlement.
The goal was to focus on a new cultural life for modern Iraq and to emphasize Iraq's uniqueness, especially in the Arab world. Modern Iraq covers almost the same area as ancient Mesopotamia, which centered on the land between the Tigres and the Euphrates Rivers.Mesopotamia, also referred to as the Fertile Crescent, was an important center of early civilization and saw the rise and fall of many cultures and settlements.Those who go to school learn Modern Standard Arabic, and many that do not attend school are likely to at least understand it.The major differences between modern standard and Iraqi Arabic are changes in verb form, and an overall simplicity in grammar of the spoken Arabic.It linked Asia to Mediterranean countries via trade; welcomed visitors, scholars, and commercial traders from all over the world; and produced incredible philosophical and scientific works by both Arab and Persian thinkers.