The Relay System Section 5 - The Struggle for a Normal Working-Day.
Compulsory Laws for the Extension of the Working-Day from the Middle of the 14th to the End of the 17th Century Section 6 - The Struggle for the Normal Working-Day. The English Factory Acts, 1833 to 1864 Section 7 - The Struggle for the Normal Working-Day.
But its total amount varies with the duration of the surplus-labour.
The working-day is, therefore, determinable, but is, Although the working-day is not a fixed, but a fluent quantity, it can, on the other hand, only vary within certain limits.
The labourer needs time for satisfying his intellectual and social wants, the extent and number of which are conditioned by the general state of social advancement.
The variation of the working-day fluctuates, therefore, within physical and social bounds.
On the basis of capitalist production, however, this necessary labour can form a part only of the working-day; the working-day itself can never be reduced to this minimum. A horse, in like manner, can only work from day to day, 8 hours.If the production of the average daily means of subsistence of the labourer takes up 6 hours, he must work, on the average, 6 hours every day, to produce his daily labour-power, or to reproduce the value received as the result of its sale.The necessary part of his working-day amounts to 6 hours, and is, therefore, , a given quantity.It amounts in the 3 different working-days respectively to 16 2/3, 50 and 100 per cent.On the other hand, the rate of surplus-value alone would not give us the extent of the working-day.But both these limiting conditions are of a very elastic nature, and allow the greatest latitude.